Why in News?

Recently, the World has celebrated the 77th anniversary of the United Nations(UN) on 24th October 2022.

What is the UN?

  • About:
    • The United Nations (UN) is an international organization founded in 1945. It is currently made up of 193 Member States.
    • Its mission and work are guided by the purposes and principles contained in its founding Charter and implemented by its various organs and specialised agencies.
    • Its activities include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law.
  • History:
    • In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare.
      • It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and established the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902. This court was the forerunner of the UN International Court of Justice.
    • The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in circumstances of the First World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security."
    • United Nations Conference on International Organization (1945).
      • Conference held in San Francisco (USA), was attended by representatives of 50 countries and signed the United Nations Charter.
    • The UN Charter of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, as an intergovernmental organization.
  • Components: All the 6 were established in 1945 when the UN was founded.
    • General Assembly
    • Security Council
    • Economic and Social Council
    • Trusteeship Council

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